Form 8-K

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 8-K

 

 

CURRENT REPORT

PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): April 27, 2021

 

 

Rain Therapeutics Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   001-40356   81-1130967

(State or Other Jurisdiction

of Incorporation)

 

(Commission

File Number)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

8000 Jarvis Avenue, Suite 204

Newark, CA 94560

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(510) 953-5559

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Not Applicable

(Former Name or Former Address, if Changed Since Last Report)

 

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions (see General Instruction A.2 below):

 

 

Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

 

 

Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

 

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 210.14d-2(b))

 

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange

on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share   RAIN   The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (17 CFR §230.405) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (17 CFR §240.12b-2).

Emerging growth company  ☒

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐

 

 

 


Item 5.03.

Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws

Amendment and Restatement of Certificate of Incorporation

On April 27, 2021, Rain Therapeutics Inc. (the “Company”) filed its Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “A&R Certificate”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware in connection with the closing of the Company’s initial public offering (the “IPO”) of its common stock, par value $0.001 per share. The Company’s board of directors and stockholders previously approved the A&R Certificate. The A&R Certificate amends and restates the Company’s existing amended and restated certificate of incorporation in its entirety to, among other things: (i) authorize 260,000,000 shares of common stock, 200,000,000 shares of which are designated as “Voting Common Stock” and 50,000,000 shares of which are designated as “Non-Voting Common Stock”; (ii) eliminate all references to the previously-existing series of preferred stock; and (iii) authorize 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock that may be issued from time to time by the Company’s board of directors in one or more series. The A&R Certificate is attached hereto as Exhibit 3.1 and is incorporated herein by reference.

Amendment and Restatement of Bylaws

Effective as of April 27, 2021, the Company adopted its Amended and Restated Bylaws (the “A&R Bylaws”) in connection with the closing of the IPO. The Company’s board of directors previously approved the A&R Bylaws. The A&R Bylaws amend and restate the Company’s existing Bylaws in their entirety to, among other things: (i) establish procedures relating to the presentation of stockholder proposals at stockholder meetings; (ii) establish procedures relating to the nomination of directors; and (iii) conform to the provisions of the A&R Certificate. The A&R Bylaws are attached hereto as Exhibit 3.2 and are incorporated herein by reference.

Please see the description of the A&R Certificate and the A&R Bylaws in the section titled “Description of Capital Stock” in the final prospectus the Company filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on April 23, 2021 pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, relating to the Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-254998).

 

Item 9.01.

Financial Statements and Exhibits.

(d) Exhibits

 

Exhibit
No.

  

Description

3.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Rain Therapeutics Inc.
3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of Rain Therapeutics Inc.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

 

Dated: April 27, 2021     Rain Therapeutics Inc.
    By:  

/s/ Avanish Vellanki

      Avanish Vellanki
      Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

 

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EX-3.1

Exhibit 3.1

AMENDED AND RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

OF

RAIN THERAPEUTICS INC.

(a Delaware corporation)

Rain Therapeutics Inc., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware (the “Corporation”), hereby certifies as follows:

 

1.

The name of the Corporation is Rain Therapeutics Inc. The date of the filing of its original Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware was April 6, 2017.

 

2.

This Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation amends, restates and integrates provisions of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation that was filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on April 16, 2021 (the “Amended and Restated Certificate”) and was duly adopted in accordance with the provisions of Sections 228, 242 and 245 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”).

 

3.

The text of the Amended and Restated Certificate is hereby amended and restated in its entirety to provide as herein set forth in full.

ARTICLE I

NAME

The name of the Corporation is Rain Therapeutics Inc.

ARTICLE II

AGENT

The address of the Corporation’s registered office in the State of Delaware is 9 E. Lockerman Street, Suite 311, Dover, Delaware 19901, County of Kent. The name of its registered agent at such address is Registered Agent Solutions, Inc.

ARTICLE III

PURPOSE

The purpose of the Corporation is to engage in any lawful act or activity for which corporations may be organized under the DGCL.

 

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ARTICLE IV

STOCK

Section 4.1 Authorized Stock. The total number of shares that the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 260,000,000 shares, of which 250,000,000 shares shall be designated as common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”), and 10,000,000 shares shall be designated as preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Preferred Stock”). 200,000,000 shares of the Common Stock are hereby designated as “Voting Common Stock” and 50,000,000 shares of the Common Stock are hereby designated as “Non-Voting Common Stock,” each with the following rights, preferences, powers, privileges and restrictions, qualifications and limitations. Any reference to “Common Stock” issued by the Corporation in any contract, agreement or otherwise to which the Corporation is a party, whether before or after the date of filing of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, shall refer to the Voting Common Stock, unless specific reference is made to the Non-Voting Common Stock.

Section 4.2 Common Stock.

(a) Voting Common Stock Voting Rights. Each holder of Voting Common Stock, as such, shall be entitled to one vote for each share of Voting Common Stock held of record by such holder on all matters on which stockholders generally are entitled to vote; provided, however, that, except as otherwise required by law, holders of Voting Common Stock, as such, shall not be entitled to vote on any amendment to this Certificate of Incorporation, including any certificate of designations relating to any series of Preferred Stock (each hereinafter referred to as a “Preferred Stock Designation”), that relates solely to the terms of one or more outstanding series of Preferred Stock if the holders of such affected series are entitled, either separately or together with the holders of one or more other such series, to vote thereon pursuant to this Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation).

(b) Non-Voting Common Stock Voting Rights. Non-Voting Common Stock (i) shall be non-voting except as may be required by law and (ii) shall not entitle the holder thereof to vote on the election of directors at any time.

(c) Non-Voting Common Stock Conversion. Each holder of shares of Non-Voting Common Stock shall have the right to convert each share of Non-Voting Common Stock held by such holder into one share (subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of any stock dividend, stock split, reverse stock split, combination or other similar recapitalization with respect to the Voting Common Stock) of Voting Common Stock at such holder’s election by providing written notice to the Corporation; provided, however, that such shares of Non-Voting Common Stock may only be converted into shares of Voting Common Stock during such time or times as immediately prior to or as a result of such conversion would not result in the holder(s) thereof beneficially owning (for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”)), when aggregated with affiliates with whom such holder is required to aggregate beneficial ownership for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act, in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation. The “Beneficial Ownership Limitation” means initially 9.99% of the Voting Common Stock. Any holder of Non-Voting Common Stock may increase

 

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the Beneficial Ownership Limitation with respect to such holder, not to exceed 19.99% of the Voting Common Stock, upon 61 days’ prior written notice to the Corporation and may decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation at any time upon providing written notice of such election to the Corporation; provided, however, that no holder may make such an election to change the percentage with respect to such holder unless all holders managed by the same investment advisor as such electing holder make the same election. Before any holder of Non-Voting Common Stock shall be entitled to convert any shares of Non-Voting Common Stock into shares of Voting Common Stock, such holder shall (A) surrender the certificate or certificates therefor (if any), duly endorsed, at the principal corporate office of the Corporation or of any transfer agent for the Non-Voting Common Stock, and (B) provide written notice to the Corporation, during regular business hours at its principal corporate office, of such conversion election (in form satisfactory to the Corporation) and shall state therein the name or names (i) in which the certificate or certificates representing the shares of Voting Common Stock into which the shares of Non-Voting Common Stock are so converted are to be issued (if such shares of Voting Common Stock are certificated) or (ii) in which such shares of Voting Common Stock are to be registered in book-entry form (if such shares of Voting Common Stock are uncertificated). If the shares of Voting Common Stock into which the shares of Non-Voting Common Stock are to be converted are to be issued in a name or names other than the name of the holder of the shares of Non-Voting Common Stock being converted, such notice shall be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Corporation, duly executed by the holder. The Corporation shall, as soon as practicable thereafter, issue and deliver at such office to such holder, or to the nominee or nominees of such holder, a certificate or certificates representing the number of shares of Voting Common Stock to which such holder shall be entitled upon such conversion (if such shares of Voting Common Stock are certificated) or shall register such shares of Voting Common Stock in book-entry form (if such shares of Voting Common Stock are uncertificated). Such conversion shall be deemed to be effective immediately prior to the close of business on the date of such surrender of the shares of Non-Voting Common Stock to be converted following or contemporaneously with the provision of written notice of such conversion election as required by this section, the shares of Voting Common Stock issuable upon such conversion shall be deemed to be outstanding as of such time, and the person or persons entitled to receive the shares of Voting Common Stock issuable upon such conversion shall be deemed to be the record holder or holders of such shares of Voting Common Stock as of such time. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, shares of Non-Voting Common Stock represented by a lost, stolen or destroyed stock certificate may be converted if the holder thereof notifies the Corporation or its transfer agent that such certificate has been lost, stolen or destroyed and makes an affidavit of that fact acceptable to the Corporation and executes an agreement acceptable to the Corporation to indemnify the Corporation from any loss incurred by it in connection with such certificate. The effectiveness of any conversion of any shares of Non-Voting Common Stock into shares of Voting Common Stock is subject to the expiration or early termination of any applicable premerger notification and waiting period requirements of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder

(d) Dividends. Subject to the rights of the holders of any outstanding series of Preferred Stock, the holders of shares of Common Stock shall be entitled to receive any dividends to the extent permitted by law when, as and if declared by the board of directors of the Corporation (the “Board”).

 

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(e) Liquidation. Upon the dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the Corporation, subject to the rights of the holders of any outstanding series of Preferred Stock, the holders of shares of Common Stock shall be entitled to receive the assets of the Corporation available for distribution to its stockholders ratably in proportion to the number of shares held by them. The Non-Voting Common Stock shall rank on parity with the Voting Common Stock as to distributions of assets upon dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary.

Section 4.3 Preferred Stock. The Preferred Stock may be issued from time to time in one or more series. Subject to limitations prescribed by law and the provisions of this Article (including any Preferred Stock Designation), the Board is hereby authorized to provide by resolution and by causing the filing of a Preferred Stock Designation for the issuance of the shares of Preferred Stock in one or more series, and to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, and to fix the designations, powers, preferences, and relative, participating, optional or other rights, if any, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, if any, of the shares of each such series.

Section 4.4 No Class Vote on Changes in Authorized Number of Shares of Stock. Subject to the rights of the holders of any outstanding series of Preferred Stock, the number of authorized shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock may be increased or decreased (but not below the number of shares thereof then outstanding) by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the voting power of the stock outstanding and entitled to vote thereon irrespective of the provisions of Section 242(b)(2) of the DGCL.

ARTICLE V

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Section 5.1 Number. The number of directors of the Corporation shall be fixed solely by resolution adopted from time to time by the Board by a majority of the directors then in office.

Section 5.2 Classification.

(a) Except as may be otherwise provided with respect to directors elected by the holders of any series of Preferred Stock provided for or fixed pursuant to the provisions of Article IV hereof (including any Preferred Stock Designation) (the “Preferred Stock Directors”), the Board shall be divided into three classes designated Class I, Class II and Class III. Class I directors shall initially serve until the first annual meeting of stockholders following the initial effectiveness of this Section; Class II directors shall initially serve until the second annual meeting of stockholders following the initial effectiveness of this Section; and Class III directors shall initially serve until the third annual meeting of stockholders following the initial effectiveness of this Section. Commencing with the first annual meeting of stockholders following the initial effectiveness of this Section, directors of each class the term of which shall then expire shall be elected to hold office for a three-year term and until the election and qualification of their respective successors in office. The Board is authorized to assign members of the Board already in office to Class I, Class II or Class III, with such assignment becoming effective as of the initial effectiveness of this Section.

 

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(b) Subject to the rights of the holders of any outstanding series of Preferred Stock, and unless otherwise required by law, newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors and any vacancies in the Board resulting from death, resignation, retirement, disqualification, removal from office or other cause shall be filled solely by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the Board, or by the sole remaining director. Any director so chosen shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such director shall have been chosen and until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified. No decrease in the authorized number of directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

(c) Any director, or the entire Board, may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least 6623% of the voting power of the stock outstanding and entitled to vote thereon (which, for the avoidance of doubt, does not include the Non-Voting Common Stock).

(d) During any period when the holders of any series of Preferred Stock have the right to elect additional directors as provided for or fixed pursuant to the provisions of Article IV hereof (including any Preferred Stock Designation), and upon commencement and for the duration of the period during which such right continues: (i) the then otherwise total authorized number of directors of the Corporation shall automatically be increased by such number of directors that the holders of any series of Preferred Stock have a right to elect, and the holders of such Preferred Stock shall be entitled to elect the additional directors so provided for or fixed pursuant to said provisions; and (ii) each Preferred Stock Director shall serve until such Preferred Stock Director’s successor shall have been duly elected and qualified, or until such director’s right to hold such office terminates pursuant to said provisions, whichever occurs earlier, subject to his or her earlier death, disqualification, resignation or removal. Except as otherwise provided for or fixed pursuant to the provisions of Article IV hereof (including any Preferred Stock Designation), whenever the holders of any series of Preferred Stock having such right to elect additional directors are divested of such right pursuant to said provisions, the terms of office of all Preferred Stock Directors elected by the holders of such Preferred Stock, or elected to fill any vacancies resulting from the death, resignation, disqualification or removal of such additional directors, shall forthwith terminate (in which case each such Preferred Stock Director shall cease to be qualified as a director and shall cease to be a director) and the total authorized number of directors of the Corporation shall be automatically reduced accordingly.

Section 5.3 Powers. Except as otherwise required by the DGCL or as provided in this Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation), the business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board.

Section 5.4 Election; Notice of Nominations and Business.

(a) Ballot Not Required. The directors of the Corporation need not be elected by written ballot unless the Bylaws of the Corporation (the “Bylaws”) so provide.

(b) Notice. Advance notice of nominations for the election of directors, and of business other than nominations, to be proposed by stockholders for consideration at a meeting of stockholders of the Corporation shall be given in the manner and to the extent provided in or contemplated by the Bylaws.

 

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(c) Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of stockholders, for the election of directors to succeed those whose terms expire and for the transaction of such other business as may properly come before the meeting, shall be held at such place, if any, either within or without the State of Delaware, on such date, and at such time as the Board shall fix.

ARTICLE VI

STOCKHOLDER ACTION

Section 6.1 No Action Without Meeting. Except as otherwise provided for or fixed with respect to actions required or permitted to be taken solely by holders of Preferred Stock pursuant to the provisions of Article IV hereof (including any Preferred Stock Designation), no action that is required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation may be effected by consent of stockholders in lieu of a meeting of stockholders.

Section 6.2 Special Meetings. Except as otherwise required by law, and except as otherwise provided for or fixed pursuant to the provisions of Article IV hereof (including any Preferred Stock Designation), a special meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation may be called at any time only by the Board. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board.

ARTICLE VII

EXISTENCE

The Corporation shall have perpetual existence.

ARTICLE VIII

AMENDMENT

Section 8.1 Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation. The Corporation reserves the right, at any time and from time to time, to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision contained in this Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation), and to add or insert other provisions authorized by the laws of the State of Delaware at the time in force, in the manner now or hereafter prescribed by the laws of the State of Delaware. All powers, preferences and rights of any nature conferred upon stockholders, directors or any other persons by and pursuant to this Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation) in its present form or as hereafter amended are granted subject to this reservation; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in this Certificate of Incorporation (including any provision of a Preferred Stock Designation that provides for a greater or lesser vote) and in addition to any other vote required by law, the affirmative vote of at least 6623% of the voting power of the stock outstanding and entitled to vote thereon (which, for the avoidance of doubt, does not include the Non-Voting Common Stock), voting together as a single class, shall be required to amend or repeal, or adopt any provision inconsistent with, Section 5.2 of Article V, Article VI, Article VIII or Article IX.

 

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Section 8.2 Amendment of Bylaws. In furtherance and not in limitation of the powers conferred by the laws of the State of Delaware, but subject to the terms of any series of Preferred Stock then outstanding, the Board is expressly authorized to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws. Except as otherwise provided in this Certificate of Incorporation (including the terms of any Preferred Stock Designation that require an additional vote) or the Bylaws, and in addition to any requirements of law, the affirmative vote of at least 6623% of the voting power of the stock outstanding and entitled to vote thereon (which, for the avoidance of doubt, does not include the Non-Voting Common Stock), voting together as a single class, shall be required for the stockholders to adopt, amend or repeal any provision of the Bylaws.

ARTICLE IX

LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS

Section 9.1 No Personal Liability. To the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL as the same exists or as may hereafter be amended, no director of the Corporation shall be personally liable to the Corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director.

Section 9.2 Amendment or Repeal. Any amendment, alteration or repeal of this Article that adversely affects any right of a director shall be prospective only and shall not limit or eliminate any such right with respect to any proceeding involving any occurrence or alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that took place prior to such amendment, alteration or repeal.

ARTICLE X

FORUM FOR ADJUDICATION OF DISPUTES

Section 10.1 Forum. Unless the Corporation, in writing, selects or consents to the selection of an alternative forum: (a) the sole and exclusive forum for any complaint asserting any internal corporate claims (as defined below), to the fullest extent permitted by law, and subject to applicable jurisdictional requirements, shall be the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have, or declines to accept, jurisdiction, another state court or a federal court located within the State of Delaware); and (b) the sole and exclusive forum for any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, to the fullest extent permitted by law, shall be the federal district courts of the United States of America. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, and for the avoidance of doubt, this Article shall not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. For purposes of this Article, internal corporate claims means claims, including claims in the right of the Corporation that are based upon a violation of a duty by a current or former director, officer, employee or stockholder in such capacity, or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction upon the Court of Chancery. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in shares of stock of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Article.

Section 10.2 Enforceability. If any provision of this Article shall be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable as applied to any person or entity or circumstance for any reason whatsoever, then, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the validity, legality and enforceability

 

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of such provision in any other circumstance and of the remaining provisions of this Article (including, without limitation, each portion of any sentence of this Article containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable that is not itself held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable), and the application of such provision to other persons or entities or circumstances shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation has been executed by a duly authorized officer of this corporation on this 27th day of April, 2021.

 

By:  

/s/ Avanish Vellanki

Avanish Vellanki
Chief Executive Officer

[Signature Page – Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation]

EX-3.2

Exhibit 3.2

AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS

OF

RAIN THERAPEUTICS INC.

(a Delaware corporation)

ARTICLE I

CORPORATE OFFICES

Section 1.1 Registered Office. The registered office of Rain Therapeutics Inc. (the “Corporation”) shall be fixed in the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation.

Section 1.2 Other Offices. The Corporation may also have an office or offices, and keep the books and records of the Corporation, except as otherwise required by law, at such other place or places, either within or without the State of Delaware, as the Corporation may from time to time determine or the business of the Corporation may require.

ARTICLE II

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

Section 2.1 Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of stockholders, for the election of directors to succeed those whose terms expire and for the transaction of such other business as may properly come before the meeting, shall be held at such place, if any, either within or without the State of Delaware, on such date, and at such time as the Board of Directors shall fix. The Board of Directors may postpone, reschedule or cancel any annual meeting of stockholders previously scheduled by the Board of Directors.

Section 2.2 Special Meeting. Except as otherwise required by law, and except as otherwise provided for or fixed pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation, including any certificate of designations relating to any series of Preferred Stock (each hereinafter referred to as a “Preferred Stock Designation”), a special meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation may be called at any time only by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may postpone, reschedule or cancel any special meeting of stockholders previously scheduled by the Board of Directors. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors.

Section 2.3 Notice of Stockholders’ Meetings.

(a) Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, notice of the place, if any, date, and time of the meeting of stockholders, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting), the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting and, if the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communications, the means for accessing the list of stockholders contemplated by Section 2.5 of these Bylaws, shall be given. The notice shall be given not less than 10 nor more


than 60 days before the date on which the meeting is to be held, to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation) or these Bylaws. In the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called also shall be set forth in the notice.

(b) Except as otherwise required by law, notice may be given in writing directed to a stockholder’s mailing address as it appears on the records of the Corporation and shall be given: (i) if mailed, when notice is deposited in the U.S. mail, postage prepaid; and (ii) if delivered by courier service, the earlier of when the notice is received or left at such stockholder’s address.

(c) So long as the Corporation is subject to the Securities and Exchange Commission’s proxy rules set forth in Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”), notice shall be given in the manner required by such rules. To the extent permitted by such rules, notice may be given by electronic transmission directed to the stockholder’s electronic mail address, and if so given, shall be given when directed to such stockholder’s electronic mail address unless the stockholder has notified the Corporation in writing or by electronic transmission of an objection to receiving notice by electronic mail or such notice is prohibited by Section 232(e) of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”). If notice is given by electronic mail, such notice shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 232(a) and 232(d) of the DGCL.

(d) Notice may be given by other forms of electronic transmission with the consent of a stockholder in the manner permitted by Section 232(b) of the DGCL, and shall be deemed given as provided therein.

(e) An affidavit that notice has been given, executed by the Secretary of the Corporation, Assistant Secretary or any transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation, shall be prima facie evidence of the facts stated in the notice in the absence of fraud. Notice shall be deemed to have been given to all stockholders who share an address if notice is given in accordance with the “householding” rules set forth in Rule 14a-3(e) under the Exchange Act and Section 233 of the DGCL.

(f) When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the place, if any, date and time thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken; provided, however, that if the adjournment is for more than 30 days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board of Directors shall fix a new record date for notice of such adjourned meeting in accordance with Section 7.6(a), and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.

 

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Section 2.4 Organization.

(a) Unless otherwise determined by the Board of Directors, meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or in his or her absence, by the Chief Executive Officer or, in his or her absence, by another person designated by the Board of Directors. The Secretary of the Corporation, or in his or her absence, an Assistant Secretary, or in the absence of the Secretary and all Assistant Secretaries, a person whom the chairman of the meeting shall appoint, shall act as secretary of the meeting and keep a record of the proceedings thereof.

(b) The date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders shall vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be announced at the meeting. The Board of Directors may adopt such rules and regulations for the conduct of any meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of the meeting shall have the authority to adopt and enforce such rules and regulations for the conduct of any meeting of stockholders and the safety of those in attendance as, in the judgment of the chairman, are necessary, appropriate or convenient for the conduct of the meeting. Rules and regulations for the conduct of meetings of stockholders, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, establishing: (i) an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, their duly authorized and constituted proxies and such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall permit; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; (v) limitations on the time allotted for consideration of each agenda item and for questions and comments by participants; (vi) regulations for the opening and closing of the polls for balloting and matters which are to be voted on by ballot (if any); and (vii) procedures (if any) requiring attendees to provide the Corporation advance notice of their intent to attend the meeting. Subject to any rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of the meeting may convene and, for any or no reason, from time to time, adjourn and/or recess any meeting of stockholders pursuant to Section 2.7. The chairman of the meeting, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting, shall have the power to declare that a nomination or other business was not properly brought before the meeting if the facts warrant (including if a determination is made, pursuant to Section 2.10(c)(i) of these Bylaws, that a nomination or other business was not made or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with Section 2.10 of these Bylaws), and if such chairman should so declare, such nomination shall be disregarded or such other business shall not be transacted.

Section 2.5 List of Stockholders. The Corporation shall prepare, at least 10 days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting; provided, however, that if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than 10 days before the date of the meeting, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the 10th day before the meeting date. Such list shall be arranged in alphabetical order and shall show the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Nothing in this Section 2.5 shall require the Corporation to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such

 

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list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting at least 10 days prior to the meeting: (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of meeting; or (b) during ordinary business hours at the principal place of business of the Corporation. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. Except as otherwise required by law, the stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 2.5 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.

Section 2.6 Quorum. Except as otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation) or these Bylaws, at any meeting of stockholders, a majority of the voting power of the stock outstanding and entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business; provided, however, that where a separate vote by a class or series or classes or series is required, a majority of the voting power of the stock of such class or series or classes or series outstanding and entitled to vote on that matter, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to such matter. If a quorum is not present or represented at any meeting of stockholders, then the chairman of the meeting, or a majority of the voting power of the stock present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote thereon, shall have power to adjourn or recess the meeting from time to time in accordance with Section 2.7, until a quorum is present or represented. Subject to applicable law, if a quorum initially is present at any meeting of stockholders, the stockholders may continue to transact business until adjournment or recess, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum, but if a quorum is not present at least initially, no business other than adjournment or recess may be transacted.

Section 2.7 Adjourned or Recessed Meeting. Any annual or special meeting of stockholders, whether or not a quorum is present, may be adjourned or recessed for any or no reason from time to time by the chairman of the meeting, subject to any rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 2.4(b). Any such meeting may be adjourned for any or no reason (and may be recessed if a quorum is not present or represented) from time to time by a majority of the voting power of the stock present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote thereon. At any such adjourned or recessed meeting at which a quorum is present, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally called.

 

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Section 2.8 Voting.

(a) Except as otherwise required by law or the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation), each holder of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be entitled to one vote for each share of such stock held of record by such holder that has voting power upon the subject matter in question.

(b) Except as otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation), these Bylaws or any law, rule or regulation applicable to the Corporation or its securities, at each meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present, all corporate actions to be taken by vote of the stockholders shall be authorized by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the voting power of the stock present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote on the subject matter, and where a separate vote by a class or series or classes or series is required, if a quorum of such class or series or classes or series is present, such act shall be authorized by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the voting power of the stock of such class or series or classes or series present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote on the subject matter. Voting at meetings of stockholders need not be by written ballot.

Section 2.9 Proxies. Every stockholder entitled to vote for directors, or on any other matter, shall have the right to do so either in person or by one or more persons authorized to act for such stockholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power. A proxy may be made irrevocable regardless of whether the interest with which it is coupled is an interest in the stock itself or an interest in the Corporation generally. A stockholder may revoke any proxy which is not irrevocable by attending the meeting and voting in person or by delivering to the Secretary of the Corporation a revocation of the proxy or an executed new proxy bearing a later date.

Section 2.10 Notice of Stockholder Business and Nominations.

(a) Annual Meeting.

(i) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors and the proposal of business other than nominations to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders only: (A) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto); (B) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any authorized committee thereof); or (C) by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this Section 2.10(a) is delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 2.10(a). For the avoidance of doubt, the foregoing clause (C) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations or propose other business at an annual meeting of stockholders (other than a proposal included in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to and in compliance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act).

 

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(ii) For nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (C) of the foregoing paragraph, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation and, in the case of business other than nominations, such business must be a proper subject for stockholder action. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business (as defined in Section 2.10(c)(ii) below) on the 90th day nor earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than 30 days before or more than 60 days after such anniversary date, or if no annual meeting was held in the preceding year, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or the 10th day following the date on which public announcement (as defined in Section 2.10(c)(ii) below) of the date of such meeting is first made by the Corporation. In no event shall an adjournment or recess of an annual meeting, or a postponement of an annual meeting for which notice of the meeting has already been given to stockholders or a public announcement of the meeting date has already been made, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. The number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the annual meeting (or in the case of a stockholder giving the notice on behalf of a beneficial owner, the number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the annual meeting on behalf of the beneficial owner) shall not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such annual meeting. For purposes of this Section 2.10, the 2021 annual meeting of stockholders shall be deemed to have been held on May 30, 2021. Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth:

(A) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or re-election as a director: (1) all information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors in an election contest, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to and in accordance with Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act; and (2) such person’s written consent to serving as a director, if elected, for the full term for which such person is standing for election; provided, however, that, in addition to the information required in the stockholder’s notice pursuant to this Section 2.10(a)(ii)(A), such person shall also provide the Corporation such other information that the Corporation may reasonably request and that is necessary to permit the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such person to serve as a director of the Corporation, including information relevant to a determination whether such person can be considered an independent director;

(B) as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the Bylaws of the Corporation, the language of the proposed amendment), the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any substantial interest (within the meaning of Item 5 of Schedule 14A under the Exchange Act) in such business of such stockholder and the beneficial owner (within the meaning of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act), if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made;

 

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(C) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made or the other business is proposed:

(1) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the Corporation’s books, and the name and address of such beneficial owner;

(2) the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned of record by such stockholder and such beneficial owner as of the date of the notice, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation owned of record by the stockholder and such beneficial owner as of the record date for the meeting; and

(3) a representation that the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) intends to appear at the meeting to make such nomination or propose such business;

(D) as to the stockholder giving the notice or, if the notice is given on behalf of a beneficial owner on whose behalf the nomination is made or the other business is proposed, as to such beneficial owner, and if such stockholder or beneficial owner is an entity, as to each director, executive, managing member or control person of such entity (any such individual or control person, a “control person”):

(1) the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation which are beneficially owned (as defined in Section 2.10(c)(ii) below) by such stockholder or beneficial owner and by any control person as of the date of the notice, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation beneficially owned by such stockholder or beneficial owner and by any control person as of the record date for the meeting;

(2) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding with respect to the nomination or other business between or among such stockholder, beneficial owner or control person and any other person, including, without limitation any agreements that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 5 or Item 6 of Exchange Act Schedule 13D (regardless of whether the requirement to file a Schedule 13D is applicable) and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of any such agreement, arrangement or understanding in effect as of the record date for the meeting;

(3) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including, without limitation, any derivative or short positions, profit interests, options, hedging transactions, and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into as of the date of the stockholder’s notice by, or on behalf of, such stockholder, beneficial owner or control person, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss, manage risk or benefit from changes in the share price of any class or series of the Corporation’s stock, or maintain, increase or decrease the voting power of the stockholder, beneficial owner or control person with respect to securities

 

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of the Corporation, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of any such agreement, arrangement or understanding in effect as of the record date for the meeting; and

(4) a representation whether the stockholder or the beneficial owner, if any, will engage in a solicitation with respect to the nomination or other business and, if so, the name of each participant in such solicitation (as defined in Item 4 of Schedule 14A under the Exchange Act) and whether such person intends or is part of a group which intends to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of shares representing at least 50% of the voting power of the stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors in the case of a nomination, or holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s stock required to approve or adopt the business to be proposed in the case of other business.

(iii) Notwithstanding anything in Section 2.10(a)(ii) above or Section 2.10(b) below to the contrary, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders is different from the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 2.10 shall set forth a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, or by the opening of business on the date of the meeting (whichever is earlier), of the information required under clauses (ii)(C)(2) and (ii)(D)(1)-(3) of this Section 2.10(a), and such information when provided to the Corporation shall be current as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting.

(iv) This Section 2.10(a) shall not apply to a proposal proposed to be made by a stockholder if the stockholder has notified the Corporation of his or her intention to present the proposal at an annual or special meeting only pursuant to and in compliance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act and such proposal has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the Corporation to solicit proxies for such meeting.

(v) Notwithstanding anything in this Section 2.10(a) to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting is increased and there is no public announcement by the Corporation naming all of the nominees for directors or specifying the size of the increased Board of Directors made by the Corporation at least 10 days prior to the last day a stockholder may deliver a notice in accordance with Section 2.10(a)(ii) above, a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 2.10(a) shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions created by such increase, if it shall be delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Corporation.

(b) Special Meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting: (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any authorized committee thereof); or (ii) provided that one or more directors are to be elected at such meeting, by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this Section 2.10(b) is delivered to the Secretary of the

 

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Corporation, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and upon such election and who delivers notice thereof in writing setting forth the information required by Section 2.10(a) above. In the event the Corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board of Directors, any stockholder entitled to vote in such election of directors may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be) for election to such position(s) as specified in the Corporation’s notice of meeting, if the notice required by this Section 2.10(b) shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such special meeting or the 10th day following the date on which public announcement of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting is first made by the Corporation. The number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the special meeting (or in the case of a stockholder giving the notice on behalf of a beneficial owner, the number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the annual meeting on behalf of such beneficial owner) shall not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such special meeting. In no event shall an adjournment, recess or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

(c) General.

(i) Except as otherwise required by law, only such persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.10 shall be eligible to be elected at any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to serve as directors and only such other business shall be conducted at a meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.10. Except as otherwise required by law, each of the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting shall have the power to determine whether a nomination or any other business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.10 (including whether a stockholder or beneficial owner solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in compliance with such stockholder’s representation as required by clause (a)(ii)(D)(4) of this Section 2.10). If any proposed nomination or other business is not in compliance with this Section 2.10, then except as otherwise required by law, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power to declare that such nomination shall be disregarded or that such other business shall not be transacted. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.10, unless otherwise required by law, or otherwise determined by the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, if the stockholder does not provide the information required under clauses (a)(ii)(C)(2) and (a)(ii)(D)(1)-(3) of this Section 2.10 to the Corporation within the time frames specified herein, any such nomination shall be disregarded and any such other business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.10, unless otherwise required by law, or otherwise determined by the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present a nomination or other business (whether pursuant to the requirements of these Bylaws or in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act), such nomination shall be disregarded

 

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and such other business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. To be considered a qualified representative of a stockholder pursuant to the preceding sentence, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder (or a reliable reproduction of the writing) delivered to the Corporation prior to the making of such nomination or proposal at such meeting (and in any event not fewer than five days before the meeting) stating that such person is authorized to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders.

(ii) For purposes of this Section 2.10, the “close of business” shall mean 6:00 p.m. local time at the principal executive offices of the Corporation on any calendar day, whether or not the day is a business day, and a “public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or a comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. For purposes of clause (a)(ii)(D)(1) of this Section 2.10, shares shall be treated as “beneficially owned” by a person if the person beneficially owns such shares, directly or indirectly, for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and Regulations 13D and 13G thereunder or has or shares pursuant to any agreement, arrangement or understanding (whether or not in writing): (A) the right to acquire such shares (whether such right is exercisable immediately or only after the passage of time or the fulfillment of a condition or both); (B) the right to vote such shares, alone or in concert with others; and/or (C) investment power with respect to such shares, including the power to dispose of, or to direct the disposition of, such shares.

(iii) Nothing in this Section 2.10 shall be deemed to affect any rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors pursuant to any applicable provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation).

Section 2.11 No Action by Written Consent.

Except as otherwise provided for or fixed pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation), no action that is required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation may be effected by consent of stockholders in lieu of a meeting of stockholders.

Section 2.12 Inspectors of Election. Before any meeting of stockholders, the Corporation may, and shall if required by law, appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. Inspectors may be employees of the Corporation. The Corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the chairman of the meeting may, and shall if required by law, appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. Inspectors need not be stockholders. No director or nominee for the office of director at an election shall be appointed as an inspector at such election.

 

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Such inspectors shall:

(a) determine the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each, the number of shares represented at the meeting, the existence of a quorum, and the validity of proxies and ballots;

(b) determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors;

(c) count and tabulate all votes and ballots; and

(d) certify their determination of the number of shares represented at the meeting, and their count of all votes and ballots.

Section 2.13 Meetings by Remote Communications. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication in accordance with Section 211(a)(2) of the DGCL. If authorized by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, and subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board of Directors may adopt, stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting of stockholders may, by means of remote communication: (a) participate in a meeting of stockholders; and (b) be deemed present in person and vote at a meeting of stockholders whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication, provided that: (i) the Corporation shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a stockholder or proxyholder; (ii) the Corporation shall implement reasonable measures to provide such stockholders and proxyholders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with such proceedings; and (iii) if any stockholder or proxyholder votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of remote communication, a record of such vote or other action shall be maintained by the Corporation.

Section 2.14 Delivery to the Corporation. Whenever this Article II requires one or more persons (including a record or beneficial owner of stock) to deliver a document or information to the Corporation or any officer, employee or agent thereof (including any notice, request, questionnaire, revocation, representation or other document or agreement), the Corporation shall not be required to accept delivery of such document or information unless the document or information is in writing exclusively (and not in an electronic transmission) and delivered exclusively by hand (including, without limitation, overnight courier service) or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested.

ARTICLE III

DIRECTORS

Section 3.1 Powers. Except as otherwise required by the DGCL or as provided in the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation), the business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors. In addition to the powers and authorities these Bylaws expressly confer upon it, the Board of

 

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Directors may exercise all such powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by law, the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation) or these Bylaws required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

Section 3.2 Number, Term of Office and Election. The number of directors of the Corporation shall be fixed solely by resolution adopted from time to time by a majority of the directors then in office. The directors shall hold office in the manner provided in the Certificate of Incorporation. At any meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation) or these Bylaws, wherein other qualifications for directors may be prescribed.

Section 3.3 Vacancies and Newly Created Directorships. Subject to the rights of the holders of any outstanding series of Preferred Stock, and unless otherwise required by law newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors and any vacancies in the Board of Directors resulting from death, resignation, retirement, disqualification, removal from office or other cause shall be filled solely by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, even though less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director, and any director so chosen shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such director shall have been chosen and until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified. No decrease in the authorized number of directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

Section 3.4 Resignations and Removal.

(a) Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the Secretary of the Corporation. Such resignation shall take effect upon delivery, unless the resignation specifies a later effective date or time or an effective date or time determined upon the happening of an event or events. Unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

(b) Except for such additional directors, if any, as are elected by the holders of any series of Preferred Stock as provided for or fixed pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation), any director, or the entire Board of Directors, may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least 6623% of the voting power of the stock outstanding and entitled to vote thereon.

Section 3.5 Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at such place or places, within or without the State of Delaware, on such date or dates and at such time or times, as shall have been established by the Board of Directors and publicized among all directors. A notice of each regular meeting shall not be required.

Section 3.6 Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or a majority of the directors then in office. The person or persons authorized to call special meetings of the Board of Directors may fix the place, within or without

 

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the State of Delaware, date and time of such meetings. Notice of each such meeting shall be given to each director, if by mail, addressed to such director at his or her residence or usual place of business, at least five days before the day on which such meeting is to be held, or shall be sent to such director by electronic transmission, or be delivered personally or by telephone, in each case at least 24 hours prior to the time set for such meeting. A notice of special meeting need not state the purpose of such meeting, and, unless indicated in the notice thereof, any and all business may be transacted at a special meeting.

Section 3.7 Participation in Meetings by Conference Telephone. Members of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting of such Board of Directors or committee by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

Section 3.8 Quorum and Voting. Except as otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a majority of the total number of directors then authorized shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the Board of Directors, and the vote of a majority of the directors present at a duly held meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors. The chairman of the meeting or a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting to another time and place whether or not a quorum is present. At any adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally called.

Section 3.9 Board of Directors Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting, provided that all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent in writing or by electronic transmission to such action. After an action is taken, the consent or consents relating thereto shall be filed with the minutes or proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee in the same paper or electronic form as the minutes are maintained. Any person (whether or not then a director) may provide, whether through instruction to an agent or otherwise, that a consent to action shall be effective at a future time (including a time determined upon the happening of an event), no later than 60 days after such instruction is given or such provision is made and such consent shall be deemed to have been given at such effective time so long as such person is then a director and did not revoke the consent prior to such time. Any such consent shall be revocable prior to its becoming effective.

Section 3.10 Chairman of the Board. The Chairman of the Board shall preside at meetings of stockholders (unless otherwise determined by the Board of Directors) and at meetings of directors and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine. If the Chairman of the Board is not present at a meeting of the Board of Directors, another director chosen by the Board of Directors shall preside.

Section 3.11 Rules and Regulations. The Board of Directors may adopt such rules and regulations not inconsistent with the provisions of law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws for the conduct of its meetings and management of the affairs of the Corporation as the Board of Directors shall deem proper.

 

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Section 3.12 Fees and Compensation of Directors. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, directors may receive such compensation, if any, for their services on the Board of Directors and its committees, and such reimbursement of expenses, as may be fixed or determined by resolution of the Board of Directors.

Section 3.13 Emergency Bylaws. In the event of any emergency, disaster or catastrophe, as referred to in Section 110 of the DGCL, or other similar emergency condition, as a result of which a quorum of the Board of Directors or a standing committee of the Board of Directors cannot readily be convened for action, then the director or directors in attendance at the meeting shall constitute a quorum. Such director or directors in attendance may further take action to appoint one or more of themselves or other directors to membership on any standing or temporary committees of the Board of Directors as they shall deem necessary and appropriate.

ARTICLE IV

COMMITTEES

Section 4.1 Committees of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each such committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee to replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he, she or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors establishing such committee, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matters: (a) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval; or (b) adopting, amending or repealing any bylaw of the Corporation. All committees of the Board of Directors shall keep minutes of their meetings and shall report their proceedings to the Board of Directors when requested or required by the Board of Directors.

Section 4.2 Meetings and Action of Committees. Unless the Board of Directors provides otherwise by resolution, any committee of the Board of Directors may adopt, alter and repeal such rules and regulations not inconsistent with the provisions of law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws for the conduct of its meetings as such committee may deem proper. A majority of the directors then serving on a committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business by the committee except as otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, and except as otherwise provided in a resolution of the Board of Directors; provided, however, that in no case shall a quorum be less than one-third of the directors then serving on the committee. Unless the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws or a resolution of the Board of Directors requires a greater number, the vote of a majority of the members of a committee present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the committee.

 

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ARTICLE V

OFFICERS

Section 5.1 Officers. The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a Chief Executive Officer, a Chief Financial Officer, a Secretary, a Treasurer, a Controller and such other officers as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine, each of whom shall be elected by the Board of Directors, each to have such authority, functions or duties as set forth in these Bylaws or as determined by the Board of Directors. Each officer shall be elected by the Board of Directors and shall hold office for such term as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors and until such person’s successor shall have been duly elected and qualified, or until such person’s earlier death, disqualification, resignation or removal. Any number of offices may be held by the same person; provided, however, that no officer shall execute, acknowledge or verify any instrument in more than one capacity if such instrument is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws to be executed, acknowledged or verified by two or more officers. The Board of Directors may require any officer, agent or employee to give security for the faithful performance of his or her duties.

Section 5.2 Compensation. The salaries of the officers of the Corporation and the manner and time of the payment of such salaries shall be fixed and determined by the Board of Directors or by a duly authorized officer and may be altered by the Board of Directors from time to time as it deems appropriate, subject to the rights, if any, of such officers under any contract of employment.

Section 5.3 Removal, Resignation and Vacancies. Any officer of the Corporation may be removed, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors or by a duly authorized officer, without prejudice to the rights, if any, of such officer under any contract to which it is a party. Any officer may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation, without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the Corporation under any contract to which such officer is a party. If any vacancy occurs in any office of the Corporation, the Board of Directors may elect a successor to fill such vacancy for the remainder of the unexpired term and until a successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.

Section 5.4 Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall have general supervision and direction of the business and affairs of the Corporation, shall be responsible for corporate policy and strategy, and shall report directly to the Board of Directors. Unless otherwise provided in these Bylaws or determined by the Board of Directors, all other officers of the Corporation shall report directly to the Chief Executive Officer or as otherwise determined by the Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall, if present and in the absence of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, preside at meetings of the stockholders.

Section 5.5 Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall exercise all the powers and perform the duties of the office of the chief financial officer and in general have overall supervision of the financial operations of the Corporation. The Chief Financial Officer shall, when requested, counsel with and advise the other officers of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time determine.

 

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Section 5.6 Treasurer. The Treasurer shall supervise and be responsible for all the funds and securities of the Corporation, the deposit of all moneys and other valuables to the credit of the Corporation in depositories of the Corporation, borrowings and compliance with the provisions of all indentures, agreements and instruments governing such borrowings to which the Corporation is a party, the disbursement of funds of the Corporation and the investment of its funds, and in general shall perform all of the duties incident to the office of the Treasurer. The Treasurer shall, when requested, counsel with and advise the other officers of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the Chief Financial Officer may from time to time determine.

Section 5.7 Controller. The Controller shall have responsibility for the Corporation’s accounting policies and practices. The Controller shall, when requested, counsel with and advise the other officers of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the Chief Financial Officer may from time to time determine.

Section 5.8 Secretary. The powers and duties of the Secretary are: (i) to act as Secretary at all meetings of the Board of Directors, of the committees of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders and to record the proceedings of such meetings in a book or books to be kept for that purpose; (ii) to see that all notices required to be given by the Corporation are duly given and served; (iii) to act as custodian of the seal of the Corporation and affix the seal or cause it to be affixed to all certificates of stock of the Corporation and to all documents, the execution of which on behalf of the Corporation under its seal is duly authorized in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws; (iv) to have charge of the books, records and papers of the Corporation and see that the reports, statements and other documents required by law to be kept and filed are properly kept and filed; and (v) to perform all of the duties incident to the office of Secretary. The Secretary shall, when requested, counsel with and advise the other officers of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time determine.

Section 5.9 Additional Matters. The Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of the Corporation shall have the authority to designate employees of the Corporation to have the title of Vice President, Assistant Vice President, Assistant Treasurer or Assistant Secretary. Any employee so designated shall have the powers and duties determined by the officer making such designation. The persons upon whom such titles are conferred shall not be deemed officers of the Corporation unless elected by the Board of Directors.

Section 5.10 Checks; Drafts; Evidences of Indebtedness. From time to time, the Board of Directors shall determine the method, and designate (or authorize officers of the Corporation to designate) the person or persons who shall have authority, to sign or endorse all checks, drafts, other orders for payment of money and notes, bonds, debentures or other evidences of indebtedness that are issued in the name of or payable by the Corporation, and only the persons so authorized shall sign or endorse such instruments.

Section 5.11 Corporate Contracts and Instruments; How Executed. Except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws, the Board of Directors may determine the method, and designate (or authorize officers of the Corporation to designate) the person or persons who shall have authority

 

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to enter into any contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation. Such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized, or within the power incident to a person’s office or other position with the Corporation, no person shall have any power or authority to bind the Corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.

Section 5.12 Signature Authority. Unless otherwise determined by the Board of Directors or otherwise provided by law or these Bylaws, contracts, evidences of indebtedness and other instruments or documents of the Corporation may be executed, signed or endorsed: (i) by the Chief Executive Officer or the Chairman of the Board (if such individual is an officer of the Corporation); or (ii) by the Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer, Secretary or Controller, in each case only with regard to such instruments or documents that pertain to or relate to such person’s duties or business functions.

Section 5.13 Action with Respect to Securities of Other Corporations or Entities. The Chief Executive Officer or any other officer of the Corporation authorized by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer is authorized to vote, represent, and exercise on behalf of the Corporation all rights incident to any and all shares or other equity interests of any other corporation or entity or corporations or entities, standing in the name of the Corporation. The authority herein granted may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by the person having such authority.

Section 5.14 Delegation. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officers or agents, notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Article V.

ARTICLE VI

INDEMNIFICATION AND ADVANCEMENT OF EXPENSES

Section 6.1 Right to Indemnification. Each person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to, or was or is otherwise involved in, any action, suit, arbitration, alternative dispute resolution mechanism, investigation, inquiry, judicial, administrative or legislative hearing, or any other threatened, pending or completed proceeding, whether brought by or in the right of the Corporation or otherwise, including any and all appeals, whether of a civil, criminal, administrative, legislative, investigative or other nature (hereinafter a “proceeding”), by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or an officer (which means, for purposes of this Article VI, any individual designated by the Board of Directors as an officer for purposes of Section 16 of the Exchange Act) of the Corporation or while a director or officer of the Corporation is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan (hereinafter an “indemnitee”), or by reason of anything done or not done by him or her in any such capacity, shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended, against all expense, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes, penalties and amounts paid in settlement by or on behalf of the indemnitee) actually and reasonably incurred by such

 

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indemnitee in connection therewith, all on the terms and conditions set forth in these Bylaws; provided, however, that, except as otherwise required by law or provided in Section 6.3 with respect to suits to enforce rights under this Article VI, the Corporation shall indemnify any such indemnitee in connection with a proceeding, or part thereof, voluntarily initiated by such indemnitee (including claims and counterclaims, whether such counterclaims are asserted by: (i) such indemnitee; or (ii) the Corporation in a proceeding initiated by such indemnitee) only if such proceeding, or part thereof, was authorized or ratified by the Board of Directors or the Board of Directors otherwise determines that indemnification or advancement of expenses is appropriate.

Section 6.2 Right to Advancement of Expenses.

(a) In addition to the right to indemnification conferred in Section 6.1, an indemnitee shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, also have the right to be paid by the Corporation the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition (hereinafter an “advancement of expenses”); provided, however, that an advancement of expenses shall be made only upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking (hereinafter an “undertaking”), by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision of a court of competent jurisdiction from which there is no further right to appeal (hereinafter a “final adjudication”) that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under this Article VI or otherwise.

(b) Notwithstanding the foregoing Section 6.2(a), the Corporation shall not make or continue to make advancements of expenses to an indemnitee if a determination is reasonably made that the facts known at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that the indemnitee acted in bad faith or in a manner that the indemnitee did not reasonably believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, or, with respect to any criminal proceeding, that the indemnitee had reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. Such determination shall be made: (i) by the Board of Directors by a majority vote of directors who are not parties to such proceeding, whether or not such majority constitutes a quorum; (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, whether or not such majority constitutes a quorum; or (iii) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion to the Board of Directors, a copy of which shall be delivered to the indemnitee.

Section 6.3 Right of Indemnitee to Bring Suit. If a request for indemnification under Section 6.1 is not paid in full by the Corporation within 60 days, or if a request for an advancement of expenses under Section 6.2 is not paid in full by the Corporation within 20 days, after a written request has been received by the Secretary of the Corporation, the indemnitee may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation in a court of competent jurisdiction in the State of Delaware seeking an adjudication of entitlement to such indemnification or advancement of expenses. If successful in whole or in part in any such suit, or in a suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the indemnitee shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting or defending such suit to the fullest extent permitted by law. In any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder (but not in a suit brought by the indemnitee to

 

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enforce a right to an advancement of expenses) it shall be a defense that the indemnitee has not met any applicable standard of conduct for indemnification set forth in the DGCL. Further, in any suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the Corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final adjudication that the indemnitee has not met any applicable standard of conduct for indemnification set forth in the DGCL. Neither the failure of the Corporation (including its directors who are not parties to such action, a committee of such directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such suit that indemnification of the indemnitee is proper in the circumstances because the indemnitee has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the DGCL, nor an actual determination by the Corporation (including its directors who are not parties to such action, a committee of such directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) that the indemnitee has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall create a presumption that the indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct or, in the case of such a suit brought by the indemnitee, be a defense to such suit. In any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, or brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the burden of proving that the indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, under applicable law, this Article VI or otherwise shall be on the Corporation.

Section 6.4 Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses conferred in this Article VI shall not be exclusive of any other right which any person may have or hereafter acquire under any law, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors, provisions of a certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or otherwise.

Section 6.5 Insurance. The Corporation may maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the DGCL.

Section 6.6 Indemnification of Employees and Agents of the Corporation. The Corporation may, to the extent and in the manner permitted by law, and to the extent authorized from time to time, grant rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to any employee or agent of the Corporation.

Section 6.7 Nature of Rights. The rights conferred upon indemnitees in this Article VI shall be contract rights and such rights shall continue as to an indemnitee who has ceased to be a director or officer and shall inure to the benefit of the indemnitee’s heirs, executors and administrators. Any amendment, alteration or repeal of this Article VI that adversely affects any right of an indemnitee or its successors shall be prospective only and shall not limit or eliminate any such right with respect to any proceeding involving any occurrence or alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that took place prior to such amendment, alteration or repeal.

Section 6.8 Settlement of Claims. Notwithstanding anything in this Article VI to the contrary, the Corporation shall not be liable to indemnify any indemnitee under this Article VI for any amounts paid in settlement of any proceeding effected without the Corporation’s written consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld.

 

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Section 6.9 Subrogation. In the event of payment under this Article VI, the Corporation shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the rights of recovery of the indemnitee (excluding insurance obtained on the indemnitee’s own behalf), and the indemnitee shall execute all papers required and shall do everything that may be necessary to secure such rights, including the execution of such documents necessary to enable the Corporation effectively to bring suit to enforce such rights.

Section 6.10 Severability. If any provision or provisions of this Article VI shall be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable as applied to any person or entity or circumstance for any reason whatsoever, then, to the fullest extent permitted by law: (a) the validity, legality and enforceability of such provision in any other circumstance and of the remaining provisions of this Article VI (including, without limitation, all portions of any paragraph of this Article VI containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that are not by themselves invalid, illegal or unenforceable) and the application of such provision to other persons or entities or circumstances shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby; and (b) to the fullest extent possible, the provisions of this Article VI (including, without limitation, all portions of any paragraph of this Article VI containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that are not themselves invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall be construed so as to give effect to the intent of the parties that the Corporation provide protection to the indemnitee to the fullest extent set forth in this Article VI.

ARTICLE VII

CAPITAL STOCK

Section 7.1 Certificates of Stock. The shares of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by or in the name of the Corporation by any two authorized officers of the Corporation, including, without limitation, the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer, the Controller, the Secretary, or an Assistant Treasurer or Assistant Secretary, of the Corporation certifying the number of shares owned by such holder in the Corporation. Any or all such signatures may be facsimiles. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

Section 7.2 Special Designation on Certificates. If the Corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the

 

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certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the DGCL, in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated stock, the registered owner thereof shall be given a notice, in writing or by electronic transmission, containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates pursuant to this Section 7.2 or Sections 151, 156, 202(a) or 218(a) of the DGCL or with respect to this Section 7.2 and Section 151 of the DGCL a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the rights and obligations of the holders of uncertificated stock and the rights and obligations of the holders of certificates representing stock of the same class and series shall be identical.

Section 7.3 Transfers of Stock. Transfers of shares of stock of the Corporation shall be made only on the books of the Corporation upon authorization by the registered holder thereof or by such holder’s attorney thereunto authorized by a power of attorney duly executed and filed with the Secretary of the Corporation or a transfer agent for such stock, and if such shares are represented by a certificate, upon surrender of the certificate or certificates for such shares properly endorsed or accompanied by a duly executed stock transfer power and the payment of any taxes thereon; provided, however, that the Corporation shall be entitled to recognize and enforce any lawful restriction on transfer. Transfers may also be made in any manner authorized by the Corporation (or its authorized transfer agent) and permitted by Section 224 of the DGCL.

Section 7.4 Lost Certificates. The Corporation may issue a new share certificate or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or the owner’s legal representative to give the Corporation a bond (or other adequate security) sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it (including any expense or liability) on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares. The Board of Directors may adopt such other provisions and restrictions with reference to lost certificates, not inconsistent with applicable law, as it shall in its discretion deem appropriate.

Section 7.5 Registered Stockholders. The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise required by law.

 

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Section 7.6 Record Date for Determining Stockholders.

(a) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjourned meeting, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjourned meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.

(b) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than 60 days prior to such action. If no such record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

Section 7.7 Regulations. To the extent permitted by applicable law, the Board of Directors may make such additional rules and regulations as it may deem expedient concerning the issue, transfer and registration of shares of stock of the Corporation.

Section 7.8 Waiver of Notice. Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the DGCL or the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a written waiver, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, the Board of Directors or a committee of the Board of Directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.

 

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ARTICLE VIII

GENERAL MATTERS

Section 8.1 Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall begin on the first day of January of each year and end on the last day of December of the same year, or shall extend for such other 12 consecutive months as the Board of Directors may designate.

Section 8.2 Corporate Seal. The Board of Directors may provide a suitable seal, containing the name of the Corporation, which seal shall be in the charge of the Secretary of the Corporation. If and when so directed by the Board of Directors or a committee thereof, duplicates of the seal may be kept and used by the Treasurer or by an Assistant Secretary or Assistant Treasurer.

Section 8.3 Reliance Upon Books, Reports and Records. Each director and each member of any committee designated by the Board of Directors shall, in the performance of his or her duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books of account or other records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of its officers or employees, or committees of the Board of Directors so designated, or by any other person as to matters which such director or committee member reasonably believes are within such other person’s professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation.

Section 8.4 Subject to Law and Certificate of Incorporation. All powers, duties and responsibilities provided for in these Bylaws, whether or not explicitly so qualified, are qualified by the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation) and applicable law.

Section 8.5 Electronic Signatures, etc. Except as otherwise required by the Certificate of Incorporation (including as otherwise required by any Preferred Stock Designation) or these Bylaws (including, without limitation, as otherwise required by Section 2.14), any document, including, without limitation, any consent, agreement, certificate or instrument, required by the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation (including any Preferred Stock Designation) or these Bylaws to be executed by any officer, director, stockholder, employee or agent of the Corporation may be executed using a facsimile or other form of electronic signature to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. All other contracts, agreements, certificates or instruments to be executed on behalf of the Corporation may be executed using a facsimile or other form of electronic signature to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. The terms “electronic mail,” “electronic mail address,” “electronic signature” and “electronic transmission” as used herein shall have the meanings ascribed thereto in the DGCL.

ARTICLE IX

AMENDMENTS

Section 9.1 Amendments. In furtherance and not in limitation of the powers conferred by the laws of the State of Delaware, the Board of Directors is expressly authorized to adopt, amend or repeal these Bylaws. Except as otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation

 

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(including the terms of any Preferred Stock Designation that provides for a greater or lesser vote) or these Bylaws, and in addition to any other vote required by law, the affirmative vote of at least 6623% of the voting power of the stock outstanding and entitled to vote thereon, voting together as a single class, shall be required for the stockholders to adopt, amend or repeal, or adopt any provision inconsistent with, any provision of these Bylaws.

The foregoing Amended and Restated Bylaws were adopted by the Board of Directors on March 19, 2021 and approved by the stockholders on April 16, 2021 subject to and effective upon the effectiveness of the Corporation’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 for its initial public offering.

 

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